Tumor markers are used in cancer diagnosis, but it is not possible to determine whether a tumor is benign or malignant. At the same time, in the early stage of tumorigenesis, the cancer cells are very small, and the values of tumor markers are not obvious. Tumor markers can be used as an adjunct to various tests, or to judge and observe progress and utility during treatment. If the value continues to increase, it is possible that the treatment failed to achieve efficacy. Conversely, if the value is reduced, it means that the treatment has an effect.
The most common tumor marker is CEA. When the CEA value rises, the tumor may grow in the large intestine, stomach, lung, breast, pancreas, ovary, prostate (prostate) and other locations. However, cirrhosis, hepatitis, gastric ulcer, chronic bronchitis, etc. will also have high values, so the doctor will make further diagnosis and testing. The standard value of CEA is 5.8 or less. When the value exceeds 10 mg/mL, it is possible that cancer cells are transferred to other organs.
When the CA125 value rises, it is generally presumed to be a gynecological disease, such as ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, uterine fibroids, and endometriosis. The standard value of CA125 is 37 or less. When the value exceeds 500 U/mL, the true rate of ovarian cancer is greatly improved. In addition, women will slightly exceed the standard during the physiological period and early pregnancy, and then return to the standard value.
CA19-9 is often referred to as the cancer index of the pancreas. In fact, cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer, gallstones, pancreatitis, and gynecological diseases can also cause an increase in the CA19-9 value. The standard value of CA19-9 is 37 or less. When the value exceeds 100, the chance of diagnosis of cancer is increased.
AFP mainly detects liver cancer, gastric cancer, and liver function. Liver cirrhosis and hepatitis can also cause AFP to rise. If cirrhosis or hepatitis improves after treatment, the value does not decrease, and there is a chance that it will be combined with liver cancer. The standard value of AFP is 10 or less. When the value exceeds 100, the chance of diagnosis of liver cancer is relatively increased.
PSA is a tumor marker for prostate cancer (prostate cancer), and PSA values also rise when suffering from prostate hypertrophy (prostatic hypertrophy). The standard value of PSA is 4 or less. However, as the age increases, the PSA value will be higher. Therefore, it is judged simply by numerical value and is not fully accurate.
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